Following are some useful command lines for Git operations, running on Mac’s Terminal.
Display Git version.
$ git --version
Initialize Git in a folder. This tells Git that you want to use your the current folder you are in as Git repo
$ git init
Show pending changes (files you have changed and haven’t committed)
$ git status
List all branches
$ git branch
Switch to ‘master’ branch
$ git checkout master
Add remote source named ‘origin’
$ git remote add origin https://email@example.com/xxxx/xxxx.git
Download existing branch (‘beta’) from ‘origin’ and save it as ‘beta-test’ branch in local. Local branch can have the same name as the remote branch, this is just to show parameter order.
After fetching from remote, the new branch will NOT have ‘git pull’ tracking configured for that branch. Call ‘branch’ command with ‘–set-upstream-to’ to set tracking information.
git fetch origin beta:beta-test git checkout beta-test
Set tracking information for local branch called ‘master’ to ‘origin/master’. Must already have the ‘origin/master’ in remote branch.
$ git branch --set-upstream-to=origin/master master
Show remote sources
$ git remote show
Show ‘origin’ info remote source
$ git remote show origin
Look up current configured remote source
$ git remote -v
Pull latest version from ‘origin’ source control after setting remote source
$ git pull origin master
Pull latest version from source control without setting remote source
$ git pull https://firstname.lastname@example.org/xxxx/xxxx.git
Add a new file to Git repo
$ git add something.txt
Add all untracked files to Git repo
$ git add .
Remove whole folder and all its content from index (untrack a folder and all its content)
$ git rm foldername -r
Commit to repo with ‘Hello World’ message
$ git commit -m 'Hello World'
Push your commits to the ‘master’ branch of ‘origin’ source to Git
$ git push origin master
Create a local clone of a repository
$ git clone https://email@example.com/xxxx/xxxx.git
Fetch from ‘origin’ source
$ git fetch origin
Merge ‘master’ branch of ‘origin’ source to local copy
$ git merge origin/master
Push and track ‘branch1’ to remote ‘origin’. This is for branch that doesn’t yet exist in remote.
$ git push -u origin branch1
Undo (discard) all uncommitted changes.
$ git reset --hard
Undo (discard) all committed (and uncommitted) changes that haven’t been pushed.
$ git reset --hard HEAD~1
To delete a local branch
git branch -d the_local_branch
To remove a remote branch (if you know what you are doing!)
git push origin :the_remote_branch
Create a link (remote) from one repo to another. Git ‘pull’ here is used to download the repo’s branches and tracking information.
See here for more details.
git remote add repo-A-branch <git repository A directory> git pull repo-A-branch
Cherry pick commit with id 86f4c61 to current branch
$ git cherry-pick 86f4c61
$ git config
Save git credentials
$ git config credential.helper store // Can be any command that requires credentials. $ git push http://example.com/repo.git Username: <type your username> Password: <type your password> // Now the credentials are stored and will be used for any command need credentials $ git push http://example.com/repo.git
|System||/etc/gitconfig||System level configuration
|Global level configuration
|Local||/.git/config||Repository level configuration
Local repository folder
Fork vs Clone
Clone doesn’t let you contribute back to the ‘upstream’ repository unless you are explicitly declared as “contributor”. Fork allows you to request a pull from ‘upstream’ repository
Pull vs Fetch
git pull does a
git fetch followed by a